In the 16th century, women's jeogori an upper garment was long, wide, and covered the waist. Travelers like the American Harry A. Franck remarked that they "displayed to the public gaze exactly that portion of the torso which the women of most nations take pains to conceal. In the South Pacific, toplessness was common prior to contact with Western missionaries, but is less common today. On the French territory of Moorea , toplessness is common. In much of contemporary Western society , it is not culturally acceptable for women to expose their nipples and areola in public. In most Western societies, once girls enter adolescence , it is the social norm for them to behave modestly and cover their breasts in public.
Until recent times, women who went topless were cited for indecent exposure or lewdness. Women and the law in most western countries generally do not regard breasts as indecent. The strictness of the etiquette varies depending on the social context.
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The same may also apply at designated topless beaches. To maintain youthful-looking bosoms women could employ wet nurses to breastfeed their children. Jean Fouquet 's portrayal of the Virgin Mary with her left breast uncovered is believed to have taken Sorel as a model. Aristocratic women sought to immortalise their breasts in paint, as in the case of Simonetta Vespucci , whose portrait with exposed breasts was painted by Piero di Cosimo in c.
During the 16th century, women's fashions displaying their breasts were common in society, from Queens to common prostitutes, and emulated by all classes. Similar fashions became popular in England during the 17th century when they were worn by Queen Mary II and by Henrietta Maria , wife of Charles I of England , for whom architect Inigo Jones designed a masque costume that fully revealed both of her breasts. In a survey of different societies, researches found that very few associated exposed breasts with sexuality, but that there was an insistence that women conceal their breasts.
Although some social attitudes to increased body exposure began to soften during the late s, contemporary Western societies still generally view toplessness unfavorably. During a short period in , "topless" dress designs appeared at fashion shows, but those who wore the dresses in public found themselves arrested on indecency charges. A wide-ranging review of different societies during found that few insisted that women conceal their breasts.
In Europe, topless swimming and sunbathing on public beaches has become socially acceptable. In , Australian researchers asked college-age students to rate the behavior of women who go topless on an 8-point scale, ranging from "Women should have the same right to topless as men" to "Topless women are exhibitionists". A more recent study of college-age women in Australia found that those who had gone topless were more accepting of toplessness generally, more sexual, and had higher self-esteem and higher body image.
Women's swimsuits and bikinis commonly reveal the tops and sides of the breasts. Displaying cleavage is considered permissible in many settings, and is even a sign of elegance and sophistication on many formal social occasions, but it may be prohibited by dress codes in settings such as workplaces and schools, where sexualized displays of the female breast may be considered inappropriate.
In a number of cultures, including Europe and other Westernized countries outside the United States, there are fewer social restrictions against sunbathing or swimming topless.
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Following that survey, several legal rulings in Canadian courts from to made public toplessness legal, but very few women go topless in public. Some cultures have even begun to expand social prohibitions on female toplessness to prepubescent and even infant girls. This trend toward covering the female nipple from infancy onward is particularly noticeable in the United States, Eastern Asia and the Middle East, but is much less common in Europe.
Around the world, it is common for women to breastfeed in public. A public backlash spurred legislators in some jurisdictions to specifically legalize public breastfeeding. The federal government passed a law in that specifically provides that "a woman may breastfeed her child at any location in a Federal building or on Federal property, if the woman and her child are otherwise authorized to be present at the location.
In many indigenous , non-Western cultures it is generally acceptable for both men and women to go without clothing that covers the torso.
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Female toplessness can also be a traditional aspect in indigenous cultural celebrations. However, this can lead to cross-cultural and legal conflict. During , Australian police banned female members of the Papunya community from using a public park in the city of Alice Springs to practice a traditional Aboriginal dance while topless. Many societies consider women who expose their nipples and areola as immodest and contrary to social norms.
Most jurisdictions do not have laws prohibiting toplessness directly, but in many jurisdictions a topless woman may be socially or officially harassed or cited for public lewdness , indecent exposure , public indecency or disorderly conduct. Most prosecutions commence with a complaint being made to the police by a member of the public, and a judge would be required to adjudicate as to the indecency etc.
In the United States, GoTopless. They further claim constitutional equality between men and women on being topless in public.
They have successfully joined in legal challenges that have resulted in laws permitting women to expose their breasts just as men do in New York State and in Ontario, Canada. In , they used 26 August Women's Equality Day , as a day of national protest. A federal lawsuit filed in the 10th Circuit Colorado , was decided at the appellate level. This effectively gave females of all ages the right to go topless wherever males legally can in the jurisdiction of the 10th Circuit, which includes Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas and Oklahoma.
In March , after a year-long campaign by a pressure group, the Topless Front, Copenhagen 's Culture and Leisure Committee concluded that there were no regulations against topless bathing by women in public swimbaths, thus no reason to specifically allow it. This triggered a vote by the city's sports and recreation committee, which backed away from requiring women to wear a top, only stipulating that everyone must wear a swimsuit.
Moreover, many men have larger breasts than women", the committee chair said. While an exposed breast in public can have many associated connotations, some women in America today argue the exposed breast is a symbol of liberation. They speak against the proposed notion that their rightful place was below their male counterparts. Throughout the late 20th Century, more and more women began to link the struggle for female equality and the repossession of the female body.
This can be especially seen in the work of Second Wave Feminists beginning in the early s.
The reaction to exposed breast as a symbol of liberation was two-sided. Women who took part in the movement expressed their desire to turn attention away from the excessive eroticization of the female body in American popular culture to more essential societal needs. The bralessness movement evolved into a bare-breasted movement, which became another way for women to "thumb one's nose at society".
In Western countries, toplessness in public often generates media coverage, leading some female political demonstrators to deliberately expose their breasts in public to draw media and public attention to their cause. Toplessness in a public place is most commonly practised or encountered near water, either as part of a swimming activity or sunbathing. The introduction of the bikini in and increasingly common glamour shots of popular actresses and models on either side of the Atlantic wearing the minimal swimsuit design played a large part in bringing the bikini and sunbathing into the mainstream.
In , fashion designer Rudi Gernreich went further and designed and produced a topless swimsuit, which he called the " monokini " in the United States. Life writer Shana Alexander noted in an article about the introduction of the monokini in July , "One funny thing about toplessness is that it really doesn't have much to do with breasts.creditmasterslive.com/wp-includes/como-hackear-whatsapp-desde-tu-movil.php
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Breasts of course are not absurd; topless swimsuits are. Lately people keep getting the two things mixed up. The topless swimsuit failed to catch on in the United States. The New York City Police Department was strictly instructed to arrest any woman wearing a swimsuit by the commissioner of parks. Women's clubs and the church were particularly active in their condemnation.
Consequently, the police chiefs must employ the services of the police so that the women who wear this bathing suit in public places are prosecuted. Tropez on the French Riviera , where toplessness later became the norm, the mayor ordered police to ban toplessness and to watch over the beach via helicopter.
A number of Caribbean locations, especially those that were formerly French and Dutch colonies, permit nude and topless sunbathing, like the French West Indies islands of St. Barths , Guadeloupe , Martinique , and St. Topless sunbathing slowly spread to other Western countries throughout Europe and Australia, many of which now allow topless sunbathing on some or all of their beaches, either through legal statute or by generally accepted practice, and beaches were designated for nude or topless bathers. A topless, or top-optional, beach differs from a nude beach in that beach goers of both sexes are required to keep their genital area covered, although females have the option to remove their tops without fearing legal prosecution or official harassment.
However, media reports in recent years note that the number of women sunbathing topless on French beaches has markedly declined, and that younger French women have become more disapproving of exposing breasts in public. Sweden is for example a country where tolerance is very low for toplessness after a brief period of popularity in the s and into the 80s.
The French have traditionally been relaxed with nudity and toplessness in entertainment, and dancers and actresses performed topless during the s and beyond in musical theater and cinema. Some female groups have also performed topless, such as the two female groups called The Ladybirds one in San Francisco es and another in Copenhagen es , which performed topless in the late s.
Women are also at times employed in adult-only venues to perform or pose topless in forms of commercial erotic entertainment. Such venues can range from downmarket strip clubs and topless bars to upmarket cabarets , such as the Moulin Rouge. Topless entertainment may also include competitions such as wet T-shirt contests , especially during Spring break in the United States, in which women display their breasts through translucent wet fabric—and may end up removing their T-shirts in front of the audience.
Female toplessness has also become somewhat common during Mardi Gras in New Orleans  during which women "flash" briefly expose their breasts in return for strings of plastic beads,  and at Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro , where floats occasionally feature topless women. Pasties are sometimes worn by erotic dancers or burlesque entertainers to give the impression of toplessness while avoiding prosecution under local public indecency laws which prohibit exposure of the nipple and areola. To stay within the law, liquid latex pasties may be used. In many Western cultures today, images of topless women are regularly featured in magazines, calendars, and other print media, often covering their breasts in a " handbra ", that is, the use of the woman's hands or arms to cover their breasts, especially the nipples and areolae.
In the United Kingdom, following a tradition established by the British newspaper The Sun in , several mainstream tabloid newspapers feature topless female models on their third page, known as Page 3 girls. Photographers such as Jock Sturges and Bill Henson have been prosecuted or been embroiled in controversy for producing images of topless teen girls as part of their ongoing work. In the s, nudity, including toplessness, was featured in some Hollywood silent films as well as on the stage, though not without objections from various groups, and several jurisdictions in the United States and elsewhere set up film censorship boards to censor films.
In the s, the Hays Code brought an end in Hollywood films to nudity in all its forms. To remain within the censors' guidelines or community standards of decency and modesty, breasts of actresses in an otherwise topless scene would be covered, especially the nipples and areolae, with their hands using a " handbra " stance , arms, towel, pasties, some other object, or the angle of the body in relation to the camera.